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Who Locked That File?

A.P. Lawrence
Expert Author
Published: 2007-11-19

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I can't even imagine how many times I've heard someone complain about a locked file.

Sometimes it's simple - the call goes out "Who has record 758 open?" or something like that, and sure enough, Bill forgot he was working on that, closes it out and all is well. But other times it is not simple, and a system admin has to track down who is doing what.

Note that in this post we're talking about real locking - not a volume that can't be ejected (Mac speak) or a file system that can't be unmounted (the rest of us). For that, just use "lsof" to find out what process is stopping you.

I had a customer call today with the locking problem: "How can we tell if a user has a lock on a file in our application?". I immediately thought of "lsof", because the man page says it should display locking information. It does so on several Linux systems I tested, but does not show that on my Mac.

For testing purposes, we'll need something that locks a file. This very simple C program does that. Note that there is no error checking at all here; it just assumes success on everything. Be sure to "touch mylockedfile" before using this.

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdio.h>

main() {
int fd;
struct flock lock;

fd=open("mylockedfile", O_WRONLY,S_IWUSR );

All that does is apply a lock to a few bytes of "mylocked" file. It sits and waits for you to press enter, and then teminates. Locks are removed upon process termination, so pressing enter ends everything cleanly.

If you called that program "makelock.c", then "make makelock" should compile it and "touch mylockedfile;./makelock" should set it running. You should see this:

open 3
lock 0

If you saw "-1" for either of those, something did not work, and I'm not going to take the space here to try to help you figure out what you did wrong - probably permissions.

In another screen, type "lsof mylockedfile". On a Linux system, you should see something like this:

It's the extra "w" that indicates the lock. If you simply had the file open, there would only be one "w". OK, that's nice, and it certainly wouldn't be hard to wrap a shell script around lsof to find the offending user. But unfortunately, on Mac OS X Leopard, lsof can't seem to spot the lock:

That doesn't help. And if we don't have root access, "lsof" won't help anyway.

Fortunately it's easy to write a little C program that tests for other processes locking files. Again, this program has no error checking; you'd want to dress it up much more for a production tool, but the raw basics are this:

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdio.h>

main() {
int fd;
struct flock lock;

printf("open %d\n",fd=open("mylockedfile", O_RDONLY ));
printf("lock %d\n",fcntl(fd,F_GETLK,&lock));
if (lock.l_type == F_UNLCK) {


With "makelock" running, type "make testlock && ./testlock" and it should return the process id of "makelock".

This "testlock" tries to lock the entire file. If you modified it so that it had "lock.l_start=3;" and recompiled it, it would report 0, meaning no lock (because "makelock" only locks the first two bytes).

So, if you can use "lsof" in a shell script, that's an easy way to find the responsible PID, but if you can't, something like this certainly can. By the way, on Linux, there's also /proc/locks, which does show all file locks, but you'd need to grep inode numbers from it:

1: POSIX ADVISORY WRITE 6641 03:02:4014117 0 1 d7693680 c0281850 d76934b8 00000000 d769368c

The "6641" after "WRITE is the PID, and the "4014117" is the inode. That's a bit more difficult than using "lsof" or this program, but everything you need is there. The "03:02" is the major-device:minor-device of the partition that has the file (/dev/hda2 in this case), the rest of it has to do with the region locked, which you probably don't care about for this purpose.

If you didn't understand any of this, I suggest you read at least Writing and Compiling C programs on Linux. If you think I just plucked those programs out of thin air and my prodigious memory, well, that's pretty funny, but really I did what I always do: cracked open my copy of Steven's Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment and cribbed what I needed.


*Originally published at APLawrence.com

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About the Author:
A.P. Lawrence provides SCO Unix and Linux consulting services http://www.pcunix.com

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